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Our research seeks to better understand and brings multidisciplinary perspectives to research and evaluate studies. We are committed to provide research-based, scholarly, and public references to better support students, faculty, staff, and community members to promote and find more effective strategies and solutions for overall research communities.


Research Resources


Human Trafficking Hotline

Who is most vulnerable, how traffickers lure people in, has myths and facts.

Reference from: Recognizing the Signs. National Human Trafficking Hotline. (2020, August 31). Retrieved July 10, 2022, from https://humantraffickinghotline.org/human-trafficking/recognizing-signs 

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Neal Davis Law Firm

Has legal definitions but also goes into great detail about the stats of arrests based on locations.

Reference from: Human trafficking statistics: Global & state-by-state data. Neal Davis Law Firm. (n.d.). Retrieved July 10, 2022, from https://www.nealdavislaw.com/criminal-defense-guides/human-trafficking-statistics.html 

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Polaris

Who is Vulnerable, discussion of myths commonly thought of, stats on a map, rumors.

Reference from: Myths, facts, and Statistics. Polaris. (2022, May 5). Retrieved July 10, 2022, from https://polarisproject.org/myths-facts-and-statistics/ 

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Human Trafficking: The Other Global Pandemic

Describes what Human Trafficking is, specifically includes talking about Kentucky, andwho is at risk.

Reference from: Lester, S. E. (2021). Human Trafficking: The Other Global Pandemic. KBN Connection, 68, 18–20.

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The Effects of Age and Gender on Types of Abuse of Human Trafficking Victims

  • Types of human trafficking
  • Gender and Age difference of victims
  • Coercion tactics
  • The maltreatment that forces victims to stay
  • Large focus to this dissertation is to discuss the differences of help needed to the various types of individuals ( age, gender, area of work trafficked into)

Reference from: Crosby, T. M. (2020). The Effects of Age and Gender on Types of Abuse of Human Trafficking Victims (Order No. 28149280). Available from GenderWatch; ProQuest One Academic. (2451419812). https://northernkentuckyuniversity.idm.oclc.org/login

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Mental health needs of sex trafficking survivors in New York City: Reflections on exploitation, coping, and recovery.

  • The Experience of Trafficking
  • Living With the Effects of Trafficking
  • Mental Health,Coping
  • Experiences With Mental Health Professionals
  • Recommendations for Supporting Survivors

Reference from: Mumey, A., Sardana, S., Richardson-Vejlgaard, R., & Akinsulure-Smith, A. M. (2021). Mental Health Needs of Sex Trafficking Survivors in New York City: Reflections on Exploitation, Coping, and Recovery. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice & Policy, 13(2), 185–192. https://doi-org.northernkentuckyuniversity.idm.oclc.org/10.1037/tra0000603

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From Awareness to Action: Assessing for Human Trafficking in Primary Care

  • Good for information regarding how health care workers could have an impact on noticing victims being trafficked
  • Discusses physcial and emotional consequences of human trafficking
  • Ways to identify a victim
  • Discussion of a plan-do- study-act model 
  • Good for college students/healthcare workers dealing with survivors

Reference from: Stevens, C., & Dinkel, S. (2021). From Awareness to Action: Assessing for Human Trafficking in Primary Care. Journal for Nurse Practitioners, 17(4), 492. https://doi-org.northernkentuckyuniversity.idm.oclc.org/10.1016/j.nurpra.2020.10.013

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Policing labor trafficking in the United States

This study explores the effect of human trafficking enforcement that is primarily focused on sex trafficking and not labor trafficking cases; It identifies the significant challenges that affect law enforcement's ability to identify and respond to labor trafficking crimes. This is the first study to explore law enforcement responses to labor trafficking from the perspective of the police, service providers, and survivors.

Reference from: Farrell, A., Bright, K., de Vries, I., Pfeffer, R., & Dank, M. (2019). Policing labor trafficking in the United States. Trends in Organized Crime, 23(1), 36–56. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12117-019-09367-6

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Risk factors for domestic child sex trafficking in the United States

This study retrospectively explored associations between multiple risk factors and domestic child sex trafficking in the United States to determine how to better prevent and identify victims and those most at risk of becoming future victims.

Reference from: Fedina, L., Williamson, C., & Perdue, T. (2016). Risk factors for domestic child sex trafficking in the United States. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 34(13), 2653–2673. https://doi.org/10.1177/0886260516662306

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The prevalence of sex trafficking of children and adolescents in the United States: A scoping review

This study tries to determine the prevalence of the human trafficking of minors in the United States. While the results indicate a high prevalence, the study has also shown a need for additional data collection in this area to determine a more accurate nationwide estimate accurately.

Reference from: Franchino-Olsen, H., Chesworth, B. R., Boyle, C., Rizo, C. F., Martin, S. L., Jordan, B., Macy, R. J., & Stevens, L. (2020). The prevalence of sex trafficking of children and adolescents in the United States: A scoping review. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, 23(1), 182–195. https://doi.org/10.1177/1524838020933873

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Problematizing the educational messaging on sex trafficking in the US “end-demand” movement: The (mis)representation of victims and anti-sex work rhetoric

This study explores the problematic nature of the representation of victims in the online educational messaging on sex trafficking promoted in the US “end-demand” movement.

Reference from: Hu, R. (2021). Problematizing the educational messaging on sex trafficking in the US “end-demand” movement: The (mis)representation of victims and anti-sex work rhetoric. Affilia, 37(3), 448–465. https://doi.org/10.1177/08861099211058827

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Sex trafficking and the role of Institutions of Higher Education: Recommendations for response and preparedness

This study explores the most effective ways for higher education institutions to help fight human trafficking and includes recommendations that will enable institutions to engage with and address the intersectionality of sex trafficking and higher education.

Reference from: Preble, K. M., Cook, M. A., & Fults, B. (2018). Sex trafficking and the role of Institutions of Higher Education: Recommendations for response and preparedness. Innovative Higher Education, 44(1), 5–19. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10755-018-9443-1

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An analysis of romantic partnership dynamics in domestic minor sex trafficking case files

This qualitative study explores the relationship patterns and dynamics that emerge between domestic sex trafficking victims and their romantic partner traffickers utilizing the secondary case files of 38 domestic minors who were trafficked for sex by their partners between 2012 and 2017. The results suggest screening at-risk adolescents for gang and family involvement in the sex industry.

Reference from: Twis, M. K., Gillespie, L., & Greenwood, D. (2020). An analysis of romantic partnership dynamics in domestic minor sex trafficking case files. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 37(7-8). https://doi.org/10.1177/0886260520960302

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Trafficked by a friend: A qualitative analysis of adolescent trafficking victims’ archival case files

This qualitative content analysis study explores the circumstances and control tactics associated with domestic sex trafficking victims within friendship-type trafficking relationships. The study resulted in recommendations for prevention strategies considering differing experiences with trafficking entry and the barriers to freedom and escape.

Reference from: Twis, M. K., Kirschner, L., & Greenwood, D. (2020). Trafficked by a friend: A qualitative analysis of adolescent trafficking victims’ archival case files. Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal, 38(6), 611–620. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10560-020-00662-8

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